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Federalist Papers No. 1-85
The debates that occurred prior to the adoption of the
Constitution For the united States.

 
     The Federalist Papers were a series of articles written under the pen name of Publius by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. Madison, widely recognized as the Father of the Constitution, would later go on to become President of the United States. Jay would become the first Chief Justice of the US supreme Court. Hamilton would serve in the Cabinet and become a major force in setting economic policy for the US.
 
     No serious student of the Constitution can be without both sides of the story. Some AntiFederalist prophecies have strangely come true. The entire purpose of The Federalist Papers was to gain popular support for the then-proposed Constitution. Some would call it the most significant public-relations campaign in history; it is, in fact, studied in many public relations classes as a prime example of how to conduct a successful campaign.
 
     These documents cannot be considered all inclusive of the total debate during the days of our Constitutional Convention. Many other pro and con pieces appeared in newspapers, in the state ratification conventions, in pamphlets, books, and other sources of the time.
 
   These Federalist writings are organized to coincide with the AntiFederalist Papers.
 
Audio Narrations courtesy of: AmericanaPhonic.com. For those who learn with their ears!
Audio Narrations Open in a New Browser Window so you can read along if you wish.
 
Federalist Paper No. 1

General Introduction
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, October 27, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 2

Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by John Jay on Wednesday, October 31, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 3

Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by John Jay on Saturday, November 3, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 4

Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by John Jay on Wednesday, November 7, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 5

Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by John Jay on Wednesday, November 10, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 6

Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, November 14, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 7

Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Thursday, November 15, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 8

The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, November 20, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 9

The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, November 21, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 10

The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection (continued)
   From the Daily Advertiser.
   Authored by James Madison on Thursday, November 22, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 11

The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, November 24, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 12

The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, November 27, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 13

Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, November 28, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 14

Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Friday, November 30, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 15

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, December 1, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 16

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, December 4, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 17

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, December 5, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 18

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (continued)
   For the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Friday, December 7, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 19

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, December 8, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 20

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, December 11, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 21

Other Defects of the Present Confederation
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, December 12, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 22

Other Defects of the Present Confederation (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Friday, December 14, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 23

The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, December 18, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 24

The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, December 19, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 25

The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Friday, December 21, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 26

The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, December 22, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 27

The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, December 25, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 28

The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, December 26, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 29

Concerning the Militia
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, January 9, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 30

Concerning the General Power of Taxation
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Friday, December 28, 1787.
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Federalist Paper No. 31

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, January 1, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 32

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (continued)
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, January 2, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 33

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (continued)
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, January 2, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 34

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (continued)
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, January 5, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 35

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, January 5, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 36

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, January 8, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 37

Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government
   From the Daily Advertiser.
   Authored by James Madison on Friday, January 11, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 38

Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed (continued)
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Saturday, January 12, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 39

The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Wednesday, January 16, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 40

On the Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained
   For the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Friday, January 18, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 41

General View of the Powers Conferred by The Constitution
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Saturday, January 19, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 42

The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Tuesday, January 22, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 43

The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Wednesday, January 23, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 44

Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Friday, January 25, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 45

The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Saturday, January 26, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 46

The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Tuesday, January 29, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 47

The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Wednesday, January 30, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 48

These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Friday, February 1, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 49

Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Saturday, February 2, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 50

Periodical Appeals to the People Considered
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Tuesday, February 5, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 51

The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Wednesday, February 6, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 52

The House of Representatives
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Friday, February 8, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 53

The House of Representatives (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Saturday, February 9, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 54

The Apportionment of Members Among the States
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Tuesday, February 12, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 55

The Total Number of the House of Representatives
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Wednesday, February 13, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 56

The Total Number of the House of Representatives (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Saturday, February 16, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 57

The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by James Madison on Tuesday, February 19, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 58

Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Wednesday, February 20, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 59

Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Friday, February 22, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 60

Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members (continued)
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, February 23, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 61

Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, February 26, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 62

The Senate
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Wednesday, February 27, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 63

The Senate (continued)
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by James Madison on Saturday, March 1, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 64

The Powers of the Senate
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by John Jay on Wednesday, March 5, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 65

The Powers of the Senate (continued)
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Friday, March 7, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 66

Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, March 8, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 67

The Executive Department
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, March 11, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 68

The Mode of Electing the President
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, March 12, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 69

The Real Character of the Executive
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Friday, March 14, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 70

The Executive Department Further Considered
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Saturday, March 15, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 71

The Duration in Office of the Executive
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, March 18, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 72

The Duration in Office of the Executive, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, March 19, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 73

The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Friday, March 21, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 74

The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, March 25, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 75

The Treaty-Making Power of the Executive
   For the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, March 26, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 76

The Appointing Power of the Executive
   From the New York Packet.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Tuesday, April 1, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 77

The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered
   From the Independent Journal.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, April 2, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 78

The Judiciary Department
   From McLEAN’S Edition, New York.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, May 28, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 79

The Judiciary (continued)
   From MCLEAN’s Edition, New York.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, May 28, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 80

The Powers of the Judiciary
   From McLEAN’s Edition, New York.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, May 28, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 81

The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority
   From McLEAN’s Edition, New York.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, May 28, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 82

The Judiciary (continued)
   From McLEAN’s Edition, New York.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, May 28, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 83

The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury
   From MCLEAN’s Edition, New York.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, May 28, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 84

Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered
   From McLEAN’s Edition, New York.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, May 28, 1788.
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Federalist Paper No. 85

Concluding Remarks
   From MCLEAN’s Edition, New York.
   Authored by Alexander Hamilton on Wednesday, May 28, 1788.
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